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PVC & Aluminium window manufacturing machines

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Technical & downloads

Glossary of Terms:

Joint Types

Corner Joint

See Figure 1 of a typical welded outer frame corner joint.

Transom Joint

See Figure 2 of a typical welded Transom joint using outer frame and transom profile.

Cruciform / Crucifix / Cross Joint

See Figure 3 of a typical welded Cruciform (or Cross) joint using pieces of transom profile.

An All Welded Window

This means that every joint in a Vinyl/PVC window sash, frame and door has been joined through pvc welding. Good welds create a bond which is stronger than the material itself. A break test should result in the joint splitting away from the weld seam. (i.e. the profile breaks - not the weld)

In All-welded window production the transom and cruciform joints are welded together. To achieve this the outer frame profile usually has a notch cut along its length at 45 degrees (often called a vee ('V') notch), while the transom piece is cut with an arrow head (to marry with the vee notch).

The AVN2 and DGS420 machines are typically used during this stage of fabrication.

See Figure 4. showing the profile pieces of a transom joint - pre-welded.

Figure 5. shows the same transom joint post welding. The HDV series of welders, starting with the 1HDV/140 are used to weld this type of joint.

Figure 6. Shows a fully welded window with two corners and a transom labelled.

A Part Welded Window

This means that all corners in a Vinyl/PVC window sash, frame and door have been joined through pvc welding while transom, mullion and cruciform joints have been mechanically joined with a screw and fixture. Mechanical joints generally require the inside shape of the frame to be milled into the end of the transom or mullion in order for the part to 'fit' inside the window.

Figure 7. Shows the transom part with end milling feature to enable it to fit inside the outer frame. An AFV360 End miller is used for this operation.

Figure 8. shows the completed mechanical joints after screw fixing.

Burnoff or Melt Loss

The Burn-off is an industry term derived from the fabricator perspective. It means the loss in pvc material at both ends of a profile piece as a result of pvc welding. Normally this figure is 5 or 6mm. (ie: 2.5mm or 3mm from both ends).

From a machine perspective the actual melt loss 'mechanically' speaking is measured perpendicular to the weld seam. There are specific techniques which measure the melt loss in each direction and on each surface of the profile.

Weld Bead limitation

Sometimes called weld seam limitation or knife gap - this represents the setting of the top and bottom knives on a welder which pinch the sprue during the weld process so that a controlled weld seam is created and just visible after cleaning. 2mm or 0.2mm knife gaps are most common. This requirement will be discussed at point of sale and set during the machines manufacturing process.

Reverse Butt Welding

This type of welding is required when making an All welded internally glazed window. To create the necessary transom joints certain frame and transom (or mullion) profiles must be square cut (instead of a 45 degree mitre) at both ends and welded end on end to each other. This is called reverse butt or straight welding. To execute this process a welder capable of reverse butt welding, like the 1HD/02, will need its fences to be set in line with each other (i.e. at a 180 degree angle). As we are now welding across the heater plate as opposed to 45 degree (hypotenuse), the burn-off or melt loss on a 6mm machine is now 2.1mm from both ends (i.e. 4.2mm total loss). Its simply mechanical profile orientation and a case or understanding what burn-off actually means. The same material is lost and the same weld strength is achieved. The difference is how we calculate and interpret burn-off according our window sizes.

Figure 9. Shows a typical reverse butt weld using outer frame section. A Vee notch has been cut central to the weld seam:

Cruciform or Cross Welding

A mullion profile running across the middle of a frame and a transom profile running down the centre will meet in the middle and create a cross or cruciform joint. To fabricate this joint there are three methods; mechanical, traditional and all-in-one cross welding.

Mechanical means that either the transom or mullion section is cut in half and its ends are milled to fit the shape if the inside of the frame for screw fixing this joint together.

Traditional means the mullion is Vee notched using an AVN2 saw, then welded to make a T joint using a combination head welder like the 1HDV to 4HDV series. A second Vee notch is created on the opposite side of the first and a second transom piece is welding here to complete the cross shape.

Benefits of Cruciform or Cross Welding

All-in-one Cross Welding means that four pieces of profile are arrow headed, placed into a Cross Welder, like the 1HDX and welded together simultaneously. This new method is significantly quicker than the traditional one and, as there are fewer processes, fewer tolerances can build resulting in more consistently square welds which in turn provides in a more aesthetically pleasing finish.

Sprue (or flash)

Sometimes called flash - this is the left over material or waste created during the weld process. The sprue or flash will be removed for functional as well as aesthetic reasons using manual, automatic and/or cnc cleaning machines. Like the EV443/30, EV443CNC, EV470 and EV475 models.


This includes items like groove knives, ovolo knives, drill/router bits, saw blades, teflon, cutting fluid, grease, oil, lubricant, refuse sacks, which by their nature will be consumed or wear over time and require replacement to ensure your equipment performs to its optimum.

Front Line Spares

These normally include items of electronics which are considered useful to have on the shelf in case of emergency. Like a mini repair kit these items can be used for speedy faulty diagnosis and therefore help reduce downtime on machinery.

PLC Unit

Stands for 'Programmable Logic Control' Unit - which represents the industrial computer unit found inside most modern industrial machines.

HMI Unit

Stands for Human - Machine - Interface and refers to the display screen which operators use to enter and view data relating to the machine in question.

ome HMIs are just display terminals, others store machine data, and combined units can have a plc built-in

CNC Control

Stands for Computer Numerical Control - The means the position of a moving head or axis can be programmed electronically via a HMI to a very high degree of accuracy.

Electrics and weights

MGS350 220-240 1 14.5 7 10 CENTRE REAR 115KG 760 620 650
MGS350 380-415 3 7 7 1 CENTRE REAR 115KG 760 620 650
DGS350/400 380-415 3 15 7 35 LEFT REAR & RIGHT REAR 500KG 4250 900 1700
DGS350111 220-240 1 - - CENTRE REAR
Extractor 380-415 3 5.5 CENTRE REAR
DGS420 380-415 3 9.90* 7 200 LEFT REAR 600KG 4230 600 1400
CRD1201 380-415 3 2* 7 5 CENTRE REAR 160KG 800 570 1500
CRD1201W 380-415 3 2* 7 5 CENTRE REAR 160KG 800 570 1500
WSF442 - RIGHT REAR 75KG 450 750 1550
AVN2 380-415 3 6* 7 10 RIGHT FRONT 110KG 540 1000 1150
SRS2500 380-415 3 2 - - CENTRE REAR 65KG 520 750 610
AS3M/AS1A - - - 5/6 100 CENTRE REAR 36KG 500 500 775
AFV360 220-240 1 8 7 10 CENTRE REAR 36KG 440 520 440
EKS432(MAN) 220-240 1 9 7 20 RIGHT FRONT 288KG 800 900 1250
1HD 220-240 1 9 7 20 RIGHT REAR 350KG 800 900 1900
1HDX 220-240 450KG 600 960 1800
2HD 380-415 3 9.00* 7 40 RIGHT REAR 600KG 3015 560 1700
2HD1V 380-415 3 9.00* 7 40 RIGHT REAR 600KG 3015 760 1925
3HD 380-415 3 9.00* 7 80 RIGHT REAR 1100KG 4000 760 1925
4HDV 380-415 3 18.00* 7 120 RIGHT REAR 1430KG 4000 760 1925
4HD-QUAD 380-415 3 20.00* 7 120 RIGHT REAR 1250KG 4000 2000 3000
EV345 - - - 7 20 CENTRE REAR 30KG 700 520 520
EV443 380-415 3 3.60* 7 40 CENTRE REAR 420KG 980(2100) 860(1400) 1545
EV443CNC 380-415 3 3.60* 7 40 CENTRE REAR 420KG 980(2100) 860(1400) 1545
SCT9 - - - 7 30 CENTRE REAR 75KG 800 900 1200
EV470 380-415 3 6.00* 7 20 LEFT REAR 750KG 1960(2250) 950(3400) 1950(1950)
EV475 380-415 3 18.00* 7 120 RIGHT REAR 1250KG 3460 2520 2300
MGS250 220-240 1 5 - - CENTRE REAR 20KG 500 500 500
SFT300 380-415 3 3.00* 7 20 RIGHT REAR 250KG 4000 2050 2200
SFT300 380-415 3 3.00* 7 20 RIGHT REAR 300KG 3000 1300 900
GLS181 220-240 1 13 7 20 RIGHT FRONT 200KG 1000 700 1200
GLS185 380-415 3 6* 7 4 RIGHT REAR 110KG 540 1000 1150
G180220 220-240 1 13 - - LEFT REAR 110KG 3000 250 100
VKP-3 - - - 7 50 CENTRE REAR 180KG 3000 600 1900
PBM1 oven 220-240 1 4 kW - - CENTRE REAR 150KG 3700 500 900
PBM1 table 220-240 2800 1830 900